On-Disk Database Format

We store the database in RocksDB. This document is an attempt to give hints about how to navigate it.


  • The column families are defined in DBCol, defined in core/store/src/columns.rs
  • The column families are seen on the rocksdb side as per the col_name function defined in core/store/src/db/rocksdb.rs

The Trie (col5)

  • The trie is stored in column family State, number 5
  • In this family, each key is of the form ShardUId | CryptoHash where ShardUId: u64 and CryptoHash: [u8; 32]

All Historical State Changes (col35)

  • The state changes are stored in column family StateChanges, number 35
  • In this family, each key is of the form BlockHash | Column | AdditionalInfo where:
    • BlockHash: [u8; 32] is the block hash for this change
    • Column: u8 is defined near the top of core/primitives/src/trie_key.rs
    • AdditionalInfo depends on Column and it can be found in the code for the TrieKey struct, same file as Column

Contract Deployments

  • Contract deployments happen with Column = 0x01
  • AdditionalInfo is the account id for which the contract is being deployed
  • The key value contains the contract code alongside other pieces of data. It is possible to extract the contract code by removing everything until the wasm magic number, 0061736D01000000
  • As such, it is possible to dump all the contracts that were ever deployed on-chain using this command on an archival node:
    ldb --db=~/.near/data scan --column_family=col35 --hex | \
        grep -E '^0x.{64}01' | \
        sed 's/0061736D01000000/x/' | \
        sed 's/^.*x/0061736D01000000/' | \
        grep -v ' : '
    (Note that the last grep is required because not every such value appears to contain contract code) We should implement a feature to state-viewer that’d allow better visualization of this data, but in the meantime this seems to work.